Fruits are the parts of plants that carry the seeds, made by the ovary after flowering has begun. Fruits are the way flowering plants spread their seeds. Fruits that can be eaten have propagated around the world with the movement of humans and other animals. This is why agriculture has a large fruit producing component, because it’s edible and vital to the human diet.
Botanists refer to a wider range of plant structures as fruits than in the culinary sense of the word. For example, corn kernals and tomatoes are fruits in botany, but not in the common meaning of the word.
The outer part of a fruit is called the pericarp and it’s often the only edible part of the fruit. From inside to outside, the pericarp is split into a further three layers: endocarp, mesocarp and epicarp.
Fruit comes from mature flowers. The ovaries of the plant are fertilised using pollination. Bees or the wind moves pollen from the stamens to the stigma or flowers. Once pollinated and fertilised, the endosperm is grown, which is the nutritive tissue for the embryo to grow from.
When the ovaries develop into seeds, the pericarp becomes fleshy, which is just the ovary wall.
Fruits for the Urban Gardener
There are many fruits you can grow in urban areas. In fact, any crop grown commercially can also be grown in an urban area. Even bananas and coconuts can be grown in the right climate.
Commonly grown backyard fruits are lemons, chillis, oranges, pears and blueberries. This is because they are relatively easy to grow and are popular to eat.
This website has useful resources for the urban fruit grower: https://backyardfruit.com/